ASAA number set by the American Standards Assoc., which is placed on film stock to allow calculation of the length and “F” number of an exposure. Reference, “F” numbers.
Abrasion ResistanceThe resistance to scratching of a surface of paper by other paper surfaces or other materials.
AbsorbencyThe ability of a material to take up moisture
Accordion FoldA type of paper folding in which each fold runs in the opposite direction to the previous fold creating a pleated or accordion effect.
AcetateA transparent or translucent plastic sheet material of a variety of colors, used as a basis for artwork and overlays.
AchromaticThe non-colors… black, white and gray.
Acid ResistAn acid-proof protective coating applied to metal plates prior to etching designs thereon. Bichromated solutions employed in photoengraving as sensitizers provide acid resist through the action of light on sensitized surface.
AcrylicA water-soluble polymer used in paints to make them dry both tough and flexible.
Actinic RaysLight exposure that affects chemical changes in paper.
Additive ColorsIn photographic reproduction, the primary colors of red, green and blue which are mixed to form all other colors.
AerateThis refers to a manual process whereby an air stream is blown onto paper sheets to create a riffling effect that separates the sheets as they are fed to the printing press.
AgateA type size of 5 1/2 points. Reference, agate line.
Agate LineIn newspaper classifieds, a measurement denoting 1/4 inch depth by one column width. 14 agate lines = one column inch.
AirLarge white areas in a design layout.
AirbrushA compressed air tool that dispenses a fine mist of paint or ink; used in illustration and photo retouching.
Albion PressA hand operated printing press made of iron.
Album PaperA wood pulp paper with an antique finish used for pages of photo albums.
Albumen PlateA surface plate used in the lithography process; it has a photosensitive coating.
Albumin PaperA coated paper used in photography; the coating is made of albumen (egg whites) and ammonium chloride.
AlignmentThe condition of type and or art materials as they level up on a horizontal or vertical line.
Alkali BlueAlso called reflex blue. A pigment used in carbon black inks and varnishes to improve luster.
AlleyA term for a random, coincidental path or a row of white space within a segment of copy.
Alphabet LengthThe measured length (in points) of the lowercase alphabet of a certain size and series of type.
AmberlithRed-orange acetate used for masking mechanicals when photographing for plates. The amberlith area appears black to the camera, and prints clear on the resulting film.
American Paper InstituteAn organization that correlates all paper related information.
Angle BarIn “web-fed” printing (printing on rolls of paper as opposed to single sheets), an angle bar is a metal bar that is used to turn paper between two components of the press.
AnilineOil-based solvent (quick drying) used in the preparation process of dyes and inks.
Animal SizedA technique of paper making which hardens the surface by passing the paper through a bath of animal glue or gelatin.
Anodized PlateIn lithography, a plate manufactured with a barrier of aluminum oxide, which prevents chemical reactions that break down the plate; it provides optimum press performance.
AntiguaAn eleventh century Italian script typeface.
AntiquarianA handmade paper (53 x 31 inches), largest known handmade paper.
Antique FinishPaper with a rough, sized surface used for book and cover stock.
Antiskinning AgentAn antioxidant agent used to prevent inks from skinning over in the can.
ApronThe white area of text (or illustrations) at the margins which form a foldout.
Aqua TintA printing process that uses the recessed areas of the plate; ideal for graded and even tones.
AquarelleThe hand application of color, through stencils onto a printed picture.
Aqueous PlateWater soluble plate coatings, which are less toxic and less polluting.
Arc LightA light source produced by the passing of electric current between two electrodes; used in the production of plates in photolithography.
ArmsThose elements of letters that branch out from the stem of a letter, such as: “K” and “Y”.
ArrowheadA symbol shaped like an arrowhead that is used in illustration to direct a leader line. Reference, leader line
Art PaperA paper evenly coated with a fine clay compound, which creates a hard smooth surface on one or both sides.
Art WorkAny materials or images that are prepared for graphic reproduction.
Art-Lined EnvelopeAn envelope that is lined with an extra fine paper; can be colored or patterned.
ArtworkAll illustrated material, ornamentation, photos and charts etc., that is prepared for reproduction.
As To PressIn gravure printing, (recessed areas of plate hold ink), a term used for proofs showing the final position of color images.
AscenderAny part of a lower case letter which rises above the main body of the letter such as in “d”, “b” and “h”.
Assembled negativeFilm negatives consisting of line and halftone copy which are used to make plates for printing.
Assembled viewIn illustration, a term used to describe a view of a drawing in its assembled or whole format.
Author’s Alterations (AA’s)Changes made after composition stage where customer is responsible for additional charges.
Autochrome paperCoated papers that are regarded as exceptional for multi-colored printing jobs.
AutolithographyA printing method whereby the image is hand drawn or etched directly onto lithography plates or stones.
AutopositiveAny photo materials which provide positive images without a negative.
AzureThe light blue color used in the nomenclature of “laid” and “wove” papers.
BFAn abbreviation for boldface, used to determine where boldface copy is to be used. Reference, boldface.
Back LiningThe fixing of a material, either paper or cloth, to the back of a book before it is bound. Reference: case binding.
Back MarginA term referring to the margin which lies closest to the back of the book.
Back Step CollationThe collation of book signatures according to reference marks which are printed on the back fold of each section.
Back To BackPrint applied to both sides of a sheet of paper.
BackboneThat portion of the binding, which connects the front of the book with the back of the book; also called “back”.
BackgroundThat portion of a photograph or line art drawing that appears furthest from the eye; the surface upon which the main image is superimposed.
BackslantAny type that tilts to the left or backward direction; opposite of italic type.
Backstep MarksMarks printed on signatures that indicate where the final fold will occur. When gathering and initial folding is completed, these marks appear as a stepped sequence.
BakingA term given to the procedure of drying coatings onto papers.
BalanceA term used to describe the aesthetic or harmony of elements, whether they are photos, art or copy, within a layout or design.
BalloonIn an illustration, any line which encircles copy, or dialogue.
Bank PaperA thin uncoated stock used for making carbon copies.
Banker’s Flap EnvelopeAlso called wallet flap; the wallet flap has more rounded flap edges.
BannerThe primary headline usually spanning the entire width of a page.
Barn DoorsA device with two sets of thin metal doors (horizontal and vertical) placed before a light source to control the direction of light.
Barrier CoatA coating that is applied onto the non-printing side of paper to add to the opacity of that paper. Reference, opacity.
Baryta PaperA coated stock (barium sulfate compound) used for text impressions on typesetting machines.
Bas ReliefA three dimensional impression is which the image stands just slightly out from the flat background. References, blind emboss.
BaseThe support onto which printing plates is fixed.
Base FilmThe foundation material onto which the film positives are stripped for making printing plates. Reference, photomechanical.
Base LineThis is a term used to describe the imaginary horizontal line upon which stand capitals, lower case letters, punctuation points etc.
Basic SizeThis term refers to a standard size of paper stock; even though the required size may be smaller or larger.
Basis WeightBasis or basic weight refers to the weight, in pounds, of a ream (500 sheets) of paper cut to a given standard size for that particular paper grade.
BauhausA design school in Germany where the Sans Serif font was originated.
BearoffThe adjusting of spacing of type in order to correct the justification.
BedThe steel flat table of a cylinder printing press upon which the type sits during the printing process.
Bending ChipA recycled paperboard product used for making folding cartons.
Bible PaperA thin but strong paper (opaque), used for Bibles and books.
Bimetal PlateA plate which is used in long print runs; the printing image is copper or brass, and the non-printing area is aluminum or stainless steel.
Binder’s BoardA heavy paperboard with a cloth covering that is used for hardback binding of books.
BindingVarious methods of securing folded sections together and or fastening them to a cover, to form single copies of a book.
BiteThe etching process in photoengraving requires the application of an acid; the length of time this acid is left to etch out an image is referred to as its bite. The more bites, the deeper the etched area.
Black LetterAn old style of typeface used in Germany in the 15th century, also referred to as Old English (US) and Gothic (UK).
Black OutAlso referred to as black patch; a piece of masking material which is used in layout to mask an area leaving a window into which another element can be stripped.
Black Photo PaperA black paper used to protect photosensitive materials.
Black PrinterRefers to the film portion of the color separation process that prints black; increases the contrast of neutral tones.
BlackeningDarkening a portion of a sheet of paper due to the excessive pressure of the calendar roll. Reference, calendar.
BlanketOn offset presses a fabric-reinforced sheet of rubber to transfer the impression from the plate onto the paper.
Blanket To Blanket PressA printing method in which there are two blanket cylinders through which a sheet of paper is passed and printed on both sides.
BleedExtra ink area that crosses trim line, used to allow for variations that occur when the reproduction is trimmed or die-cut.
Blind EmbossA design or bas relief impression that is made without using inks or metal foils.
Blind EmbossingEmbossed forms that are not inked, or gold leafed.
Blind FolioPage number not printed on page.
Blind ImageA problem that arises in the lithography process when an image loses its ink receptivity and fails to print.
BlisteringAlthough seemingly dry, paper does contain approximately 5% moisture. In cases where there is excessive moisture, and the paper is passed through a high heat-drying chamber, the moisture within the paper actually boils and causes a bubble or blistering effect.
BlockIllustrations or line art etched onto zinc or copper plates and used in letterpress printing.
Block InTo sketch the primary areas and points of reference of an illustration in preparation for going to final design or production.
Block ResistanceThe resistance of coated papers to blocking. Reference, blocking.
BlockingThe adhesion of one coated sheet to another, causing paper tears or particles of the coating to shed away from the paper surface.
Blocking OutTo mask a section of an art layout before reproduction.
Blow-upAny enlargement of photos, copies or line art.
Blue-LinePhotographic proof made from flats for checking accuracy, layout and imposition before plates are made. Also known as a dylux.
BodyThe main shank or portion of the letter character other than the ascenders and descenders. Also: A term used to define the thickness or viscosity of printer’s ink.
Body SizeThe point size of a particular type character.
Boiler PlateRepetitive blocks of type that are picked up and included routinely without recreating them.
BoldfaceAny type that has a heavier black stroke that makes it more conspicuous.
BoltsThe edges of folded sheets of paper, which are trimmed off in the final stages of production.
BondA grade of durable writing, printing and typing paper that has a standard size of 17×22 inches.
BookA general classification to describe papers used to print books; its standard size is 25×38 inches. A printed work which contains more than 64 pages.
Book BlockA term given the unfinished stage of bookmaking when the pages are folded, gathered and stitched-in but not yet cover bound.
Bounce 1A registration problem, usually on copiers, where the image appears to bounce back and forth. A bounce usually occurs in one direction depending on how the paper is passing through the machine. This is usually accented by card stock (especially if it’s over the machine’s spec). When a customer refuses a job for whatever reason.
BourgesA pressure sensitive color film that is used to prepare color art.
Box Cover PaperA lightweight paper used expressly for covering paper boxes.
Box Enamel PaperA glossy coated paper used to cover paper boxes.
Box LinersA coated paper used on the inside of boxes, which are used for food.
BraceA character ” }” used to group lines, or phrases.
Break For ColorIn layout design, the term for dividing or separating the art and copy elements into single color paste-up sheets.
Bristol BoardA board paper of various thickness; having a smooth finish and used for printing and drawing.
Broad FoldA term given to the fold whereby paper is folded with the short side running with the grain.
BrocadeA heavily embossed paper.
BrochureA pamphlet that is bound in booklet form.
BronzingA printing method whereby special ink is applied to sheets and then a powder is applied producing a metallic effect.
Brownline ProofA photographic proof made by exposing a flat to UV light creating a brown image on a white background. Also referred to as silverprint.
Buckle FolderA portion of the binding machinery with rollers that fold the paper.
BuckramA coarse sized cloth used in the bookbinding process.
BulkA term given to paper to describe its thickness relative to its weight.
BulkA term used to define the number of pages per inch of a book relative to its given basis weight.
BulletA boldface square or dot used before a sentence to emphasize its importance.
Bump ExposureA process used in halftone photography that entails the temporary removal of the screen during exposure. This increases the highlight contrast and diminishes the dots in the whites.
BurnA term used in plate making to describe the amount of plate exposure time.
BurnishA term used for the process of “rubbing down” lines and dots on a printing plate, which darkens those rubbed areas.
BurnishingCreating a polished finish on paper by rubbing with stone or hand smoothing a surface.
Burst BindingA binding technique that entails nicking the backfold in short lengths during the folding process, which allows glue to reach each individual leaf and create a strong bond.
Cable PaperA strong paper used to wrap electrical cables.
Cadmium YellowA pigment made from cadmium sulfide and cadmium selenide.
Calendar BoardA strong paperboard used for calendars and displays.
Calendar RollsA series of metal rolls at the end of a paper machine; when the paper is passed between these rolls it increases its smoothness and glossy surface.
CaliperThe measurement of thickness of paper expressed in thousandths of an inch or mils.
CameoA dull coated paper, which is particularly useful in reproducing halftones and engravings.
Camera ReadyA term given to any copy, artwork etc., that is prepared for photographic reproduction.
Canvas BoardA paperboard with a surface of simulated canvas, used for painting.
Cap LineAn imaginary horizontal line running across the tops of capital letters.
Caps & Lower CaseInstructions in the typesetting process that indicate the use of a capital letter to start a sentence and the rest of the letters in lower case.
Caps & Small CapsTwo sizes of capital letters made in one size of type.
Carbon BlackA pigment made of elemental carbon and ash.
Carbon TissueA color printing process utilizing pigmented gelatin coatings on paper, which become the resist for etching gravure plates or cylinders.
Carbonate PaperA chemical pulp paper (calcium carbonate), used mostly for the printing of magazines.
CartridgeA rough finished paper used for wrapping.
CaseThe stiff covers of a hardbound book.
Case BindingBooks bound using hard board (case) covers.
CaseinA milk byproduct used as an adhesive in making coated papers.
Casing InThe process of placing in and adhering a book to its case covers.
Cast CoatedA paper that is coated and then pressure dried using a polished roller which imparts an enamel like hard gloss finish.
Catching UpA term to describe that period of the printing process where the non-image areas can take on ink or debris.
Chain LinesLines that appear on laid paper as a result of the wires of the papermaking machine.
ChalkingA term used to describe the quality of print on paper where the absorption of the paper is so great that it breaks up the ink image creating loose pigment dust.
Chancery ItalicA 13th century handwriting style which is the roots of italic design.
Chase(old) Frame of steel, or cast or wrought iron, in which images are locked up for printing.
China ClayAn aluminum silica compound used in gravure and screen printing inks. Also called kaolin.
Chrome GreenThe resulting ink pigment attained from the mixture of chrome yellow and iron blue.
Chrome YellowA lead chromate yellow ink pigment.
Circular ScreenA screen that utilizes a concentric circle pattern as opposed to dots used for halftones and to allow the platemaker to set exact screen angles.
Clay-Coated BoxboardA strong, easily folded boxboard with clay coating used for making folding boxes.
Coarse ScreenHalftone screens commonly used in newsprint; up to 85 lines per inch.
Coated (Paper)Paper coated with clay, white pigments and a binder. Better for printing because there is less picking.
Coated Art PaperPrinting papers used for printing projects that require a special treatment of detail and shading.
Coated StockAny paper that has a mineral coating applied after the paper is made, giving the paper a smoother finish.
Cold ColorAny color that moves toward the blue side in the color spectrum.
Cold-Set InksA variety of inks that are in solid form originally but are melted in a hot press and then solidify when they contact paper.
CollateTo gather sheets or signatures together in their correct order. (see Gather)
Collating MarksBlack step-marks printed on the back of folded sheets, to facilitate collating and checking of the sequence of book signatures.
Collating MarksBlack step-marks printed on the back of folded sheets, to facilitate collating and checking of the sequence of book signatures.
ColophonA printers or publishers identifying symbol or emblem.
Color BarsThis term refers to a color test strip, which is printed on the waste portion of a press sheet. It is a standardized (GATF-Graphic Arts Technical Foundation) process which allows a pressman to determine the quality of the printed material relative to ink density, registration, and dot gain. It also includes the Star Target, which is a similar system designed to detect inking problems.
Color SeparatingThe processes of separating the primary color components for printing.
Color StrengthA term referring to the relative amount of pigmentation in an ink.
Color TransparencyTransparent film containing a positive photographic color image.
Column GutterSpace between two or more columns of type on one page.
Commercial RegisterColor registration measured within plus or minus one row of dots.
CompositionThe assembly of characters into words, lines and paragraphs of text or body matter for reproduction by printing.
Condensed TypeA narrow, elongated type face.
Contact PrintA print made from contact of a sensitive surface to a negative or positive photograph.
Contact ScreenA halftone screen made on film of graded density, and used in a vacuum contact with the film.
Continuous ToneImage made of non-discernable picture elements which give appearance of continuous spectrum of grey values or tones.
ContrastThe degree of tonal separation or gradation in the range from black to white.
Contre JourTaking a picture with the camera lens facing the light source.
CopyRefers to any typewritten material, art, photos etc., to be used for the printing process.
CopyboardA board upon which the copy is pasted for the purpose of photographing.
Corner MarksMarks on a final printed sheet that indicate the trim lines or register indicators.
CoverA term describing a general type of papers used for the covers of books, pamphlets etc.
CreepWhen the rubber blanket on a cylinder moves forward due to contact with the plate or paper. Result of added thickness of folded sheets being behind one another in a folded signature. Outer edges of sheets creep away from back most fold as more folded sheets are inserted inside the middle.
CropTo eliminate a portion of the art or copy as indicated by crop marks.
Crop MarkMarkings at edges of original or on guide sheet to indicate the area desired in reproduction with negative or plate trimmed (cropped) at the markings.
Cross-overElements that cross page boundaries and land on two consecutive pages (usually rules).
CrossmarksMarks of fine lines, which intersect to indicate accurate alignment of art elements.
CrossoverA term used to describe the effect of ink from an image, rule or line art on one printed page, which carries over to another page of a bound work.
CurlNot lying flat and tending to form into cylindrical or wavy shapes. A term to describe the differences of either side of a sheet relative to coatings, absorbency etc.; the concave side is the curl side.
Cut-offA term used in web press printing to describe the point at which a sheet of paper is cut from the roll; usually this dimension is equal to the circumference of the cylinder.
CutterMachine for accurately cutting stacks of paper to desired dimensions…can also be used to crease. Also trims out final bound books’ top size (soft cover).
Cutting DieSharp edged device, usually made of steel, to cut paper, cardboard, etc., on a printing press.
CyanA shade of blue used in the four-color process; it reflects blue and green and absorbs red.
Cylinder GapThe gap in the cylinders of a press where the grippers or blanket clamps is housed.
DahlgrenA dampening system for printing presses which utilizes more alcohol (25%) and less water; this greatly reduces the amount of paper that is spoiled.
DampeningAn essential part of the printing process whereby cloth covered rubber rollers distributes the dampening solution to the plate.
Dandy RollDuring the paper making process while the paper is still 90% water, it passes over a wire mesh cylinder (dandy roll), which imparts surface textures on the paper such as wove or laid. This is also the stage where the watermark is put onto the paper.
Deckle EdgeThe rough or feathered edge of paper when left untrimmed.
Deep EtchingThe etching or removal of any unwanted areas of a plate to create more air or white space on the finished product.
DeleteAn instruction given to remove an element from a layout.
DemyA term that describes a standard sized printing paper measuring 17.5 x 22.5 in.
DensitometerAn optical device used by printers and photographers to measure and control the density of color.
DensityThe lay of paper fibers relative to tightness or looseness which affects the bulk, the absorbency and the finish of the paper.
DensityThe degree of tone, weight of darkness or color within a photo or reproduction; measurable by the densitometer. Reference, densitometer.
DescenderA term that describes that portion of lower case letters which extends below the main body of the letter, as in “p”.
DiazoA light sensitive coal tar product used as a coating on presensitized plates, as well as overlay proofs.
DieDesign, letters or shapes, cut into metal (mostly brass) for stamping book covers or embossing. An engraved stamp used for impressing an image or design.
Die CuttingA method of using sharp steel ruled stamps or rollers to cut various shapes i.e. labels, boxes, image shapes, either post press or in line. The process of cutting paper in a shape or design by the use of a wooden die or block in which are positioned steel rules in the shape of the desired pattern.
Die StampingAn intaglio process for printing from images engraved into copper or steel plates.
Digital ProofColor separation data is digitally stored and then exposed to color photographic paper creating a picture of the final product before it is actually printed.
Dimensional stabilityThe qualities of paper to stabilize its original size when undergoing pressure or exposed to moisture.
DiplomaA fine paper made specifically for the printing of diplomas, certificates and documents.
Direct Screen HalftoneA color separation process using a halftone negative made by direct contact with the halftone screen.
Display TypeAny type that stands out from the rest of the type on a page which attracts attention of the reader.
Distribution RollersIn the printing process, the rubber coated rollers responsible for the distribution of ink from the fountain to the ink drum.
Doctor BladeA term in gravure printing which refers to the knife-edge that runs along the printing cylinder; its function is to wipe the excess ink away from the non-printing areas.
Dog EarOccurs when you fold into a fold (such as a letter fold). At the side of one of the creases you get an indentation. It may look like a small inverted triangle.
DotThe smallest individual element of a halftone.
Dot GainDarkening of halftone image due to ink absorption in paper causing halftone dots to enlarge. Terms to describe the occurrence whereby dots are printing larger than they should.
Draw-downA method used by ink makers to determine the color, quality and tone of ink. It entails the drawing of a spatula over a drop of ink, spreading it flat over the paper.
DrierA term that describes any additives to ink which encourages the drying process.
DrillThe actual drilling of holes into paper for ring or comb binding.
Drop FolioPage number printed at foot of page.
Drop ShadowA shadow image placed strategically behind an image to create the affect of the image lifting off the page.
Dry MountPasting with heat sensitive adhesives.
Dry OffsetProcess in which a metal plate is etched to a depth of 0.15 mm (0.006 in), making a right-reading relief plate, printed on the offset blanket and then to the paper without the use of water.
Ductor RollerThe roller between the inking and the dampening rollers.
Dull FinishAny matte finished paper.
DummyA term used to describe the preliminary assemblage of copy and art elements to be reproduced in the desired finished product; also called a comp.
Dummy ModelResembling finished piece in every respect except that the pages and cover are blank, used by the designer as a final check on the appearance and +feel+ of the book as a guide for the size and position of elements on the jacket.
DuotoneColor reproduction from monochrome original. Keyplate usually printed in dark color for detail, second plate printed in light flat tints. A two-color halftone reproduction generated from a one-color photo.
Duplex PaperPaper which has a different color or finish on each side.
DutchAny deckle edged paper, originally produced in the Netherlands. Reference, deckle edge
Dye-Based InkAny ink that acquires its color by the use of aniline pigments or dyes. Reference, aniline
Eggshell FinishThe finish of paper surface that resembles an eggshell achieved by omitting the calendar process. Reference, calendar rolls.
Electronic CompositionThe assembly of characters into words, lines and paragraphs of text or body matter with graphic elements in page layout form in digital format for reproduction by printing.
Electronic ProofA process of generating a prepress proof in which paper is electronically exposed to the color separation negatives; the paper is passed through the electrically charged pigmented toners, which adhere electrostatically, resulting in the finished proof.
Elliptical DotHalftone screens in which the dots are actually elongated to produce improved middle tones.
EmA unit of measurement equaling 12 points or 4.5mm.
EmbossedA method of paper finishing whereby a pattern is pressed into the paper when it is dry.
EmbossingTo raise in relief a design or letters already printed on card stock or heavy paper by an uninked block or die. In rubber and plastic plate making the process is usually done by heat.
EmulsionA light sensitive substance used as a coating for film; made from a silver halide compound. This side should face the lens when the film is exposed.
EnamelA term that describes a glossy coating on paper.
EndsheetAttaching the final sheet of a signature of a book to the binding.
English FinishA grade of uncoated book paper with a smooth uniform surface.
EngravingA printing process whereby images such as copy or art are etched onto a plate. When ink is applied, these etched areas act as small wells to hold the ink; paper is forced against this die and the ink is lifted out of the etched areas creating raised images on the paper.
EstimateThe form used by the printer to calculate the project for the print buyer. This form contains the basic parameters of the project including size, quantity, colors, bleeds, photos etc.
EstimatorOne who computes or approximates the cost of work to be done on which quotation may be based.
EtchThe process of producing an image on a plate by the use of acid.
Even SmallsThe use of smaller sized capitals at the beginning of a sentence without the use of larger sized caps.
Expanded TypeType with width greater than normal producing a rectangular effect.
ExposureThat stage of the photographic process where the image is produced on the light sensitive coating.
ExtenderA white pigment added to a colored pigment to reduce its intensity and improve its working qualities.
F&GA term in the binding process referring to folding and gathering.
Fan FoldPaper folding that emulates an accordion or fan, the folds being alternating and parallel.
Fat FaceType that is quite varied in its use of very thin and very wide strokes.
FeltA cloth conveyor belt that receives papers from the Fourdrinier wire and delivers it to the drier.
Felt FinishThe smoother side of paper, usually a soft weave pattern used for book papers.
Felt SideIt is the top side of the sheet in the paper making process that does not lie on the Fourdrinier wire.
Filling InA fault in printing where the ink fills in the fine line or halftone dot areas.
Film CoatAlso called wash coat; any thinly coated paper stock.
FinishThe surface quality of paper.
Finish (Paper)Dull – (low gloss) also matte or matte gloss.
FistA symbol used in printing to indicate the index; seen as a pointing finger on a hand “+”.
FitThe registration of items within a given page.
Flash PointA term given to the lowest temperature of ignitibility of vapors given off by a substance.
FlatIn lithography, the assembly of photographic negatives or positives on vinyl acetate for exposure in vacuum frame in contact with sensitized metal press plate.
Flock PaperPaper that is patterned by sizing, and than coated with powders of wool or cotton, (flock).
Fluid InkAlso called liquid ink; ink with a low viscosity.
Flush CoverA bound book or booklet etc. having the cover trimmed to the same size as the text.
Flushed PigmentThe results of combining a wet ink pigment with a varnish and having the wet pigment mix or transfer over to the varnish.
Fogging BackLowering density of an image in a specific area usually to make type more legible while still letting image show through.
FoilsPapers that have a surface resembling metal.
Fold MarksMarkings at top edges that show where folds should occur.
FolderMachine used to fold signatures down into sections.
Folio or Page NumberNumber of page at top or bottom either centered, flushed left or flushed right often with running headline.
FontThe characters which make up a complete typeface and size.
Form RollersThe rollers that come into direct contact with the plate of a printing press.
Forme(old) type matter or type and block with its accompanying spacing material secured in the forme called a chase.
ForwardingIn Binding, the process between folding sheets and casing in, such as rounding and backing, putting on headbands, reinforcing backs, etc.
FourdrinierA machine with a copper wire screen that receives the pulp slurry in the paper making process which will become the final paper sheet.
Free sheetAny paper that is free from wood pulp impurities.
French Fold(er)Folder with printing on one side so that when folded once in each direction, the printing on outside of the folds.
FringeA halo that appears around halftone dots.
Fugitive inksColors that lose tone and permanency when exposed to light.
FurnishThe slurry mixture of fibers, water, chemicals and pigments, that is delivered to the Fourdrinier machine in the paper making process.
FuzzA term for the fibers that project from the paper surface.
Galley(old) flat oblong tray into which composed type matter is put and kept until made up into pages in the forme. Also a similar tray on a slug composing machine which receives the slugs as they are ejected. Also a long column of composed text matter
Galley ProofA proof of text copy before it is pasted into position for printing.
Galley SlaveOld term for compositor.
GangGroup of frames or impositions in the same forme of different jobs arranged and positioned to be printed together.
GangingThe bundling of two or more different printing projects on the same sheet of paper.
GatherTo assemble or collect sections into single copies of complete books for binding.
GatheringAssembling sheets of paper and signatures into their proper sequence; collating.
GhostingImage which appears as a lighter area on a subsequent print due to local blanket depressions from previous image areas on a letterpress rotary machine as well as on an offset press.
GhostingMarring a print by the placement of an image of work printed on the reverse side which has interfered with its drying so that differences in the trapping frame colors or glass variations are apparent.
GigoGarbage in, garbage out.
GildingSticking on gold leaf to edges of books with a liquid agent and made permanent with burnishing tools.
GlassineA strong transparent paper.
Gloss InkQuick drying oil based inks with low penetration qualities, used on coated stock.
GlyphicA carved as opposed to scripted typeface.
GoldenrodAn orange colored paper with gridlines, used to assemble materials for exposure for platemaking.
Graduated ScreenAn area of image where halftone dots range continuously from one density to another.
GrainDirection of fibers in a sheet of paper governing paper properties such as increased size changes with relative humidity, across the grain, and better folding properties along the grain.
Grained PaperA paper embossed to resemble various textures, such as leather, alligator, wood, etc.
GravureAn intaglio or recessed printing process. The recessed areas are like wells that form the image as paper passes through.
GripperA series of metal fingers that hold each sheet of paper as it passes through the various stages of the printing process.
Gripper EdgeThe grippers of the printing press move the paper through the press by holding onto the leading edge of the sheet; this edge is the gripper edge.
GroundwoodLow cost papers such as newsprint made by the mechanical pulping process as opposed to chemical pulping and refining.
GummingThe application of gum arabic to the non printing areas of a plate.
GutterSpace between pages in the printing frame of a book, or inside margin towards the back or binding edge. The blank space or margin between the type page and the binding of a book.
Hairline registerPrinting registration that lies within the range of plus or minus one half row of dots. It is the thinnest of the standard printers’ rules.
HalftoneTone graduated image composed of varying sized dots or lines, with equidistant centers.
Halftone PaperA high finish paper that is ideal for halftone printing.
Halftone ScreenA sheet of film or glass containing ruled right-angled lines, used to translate the full tone of a photo to the halftone dot image required for printing.
Hard DotThe effect in a photograph where a dot has such a small degree of halation that the dot shows quite sharp.
Head MarginThat space which lies between the top of the printed copy and the trimmed edge.
HickiesImperfections in presswork due to dirt on press, trapping errors, etc.
High Bulk PaperPaper stock that is comparatively thick in relation to its basis weight.
High Key HalftoneA halftone that is made utilizing only the highlight tones down through the middle tones.
Highlight DotThe highest density of a halftone image.
HighlightsThe lightest tones of a photo, printed halftone or illustration. In the finished halftone, these highlights are represented by the finest dots.
HollowThat space on the spine of a case bound book between the block of the book and the case binding.
Hot meltAn adhesive used in the binding process, which requires heat for application.
House SheetThis is a term that refers to a paper that a printer keeps on hand in his shop.
IBCInside back cover.
IFCInside front cover.
Image AreaThat portion of the printing plate that carries the ink and prints on paper.
Image SetterHigh resolution, large format device for producing film from electronically generated page layouts.
ImpositionArrangement of pages so that they print correctly on a press sheet, and the pages are in proper order when the sheets are folded.
ImpressionProduct resulting from one cycle of printing machine. The pressure of the image carrier, whether it be the type, plate or blanket, when it contacts the paper.
Index BristolA relatively thick paper stock; basis size—25 1/2 x 30 1/2.
IndiciaMarkings pre-printed on mailing envelopes to replace the stamp.
Industrial PapersA term used to denote papers such as janitorial, sanitary or heavy packing papers.
Ink FountainThe device which stores and meters ink to the inking rollers.
Ink HoldoutA quality of paper to be resistant to ink absorption, allowing the ink to dry on the paper surface.
Ink MistAny threads or filaments which protrude from the main printed letter body of long inks, as seen in newsprint.
Ink SettingThe inertial resistance to flow that occurs to ink as soon as it is printed.
InkometerA device used to measure the tack of ink.
InsertsExtra printed pages inserted loosely into printed pieces.
Integral ProofA proof made by exposing each of the four-color separations to an emulsion layer of primary colors. These emulsion sheets are stacked in register with a white sheet of paper in the background. Types of integral proofs are cromalin, matchprint, ektaflex, and spactraproof.
InterleavesExtra blank pages inserted loosely into book after printing.
Iridescent PaperA coated stock finished in mother-of-pearl.
ItalicText that is used to denote emphasis by slanting the type body forward.
JacketThe paper cover sometimes called the “dust cover” of a hardbound book.
Job NumberA number assigned to a printing project used for record keeping and job tracking. Also used to retrieve old jobs for reprints or reworking by customer.
JogTo vibrate a stack of finished pages so that they are tightly aligned for final trimming.
JoggerVibrating, sloping platform that evens up the edges of stacks of paper.
KerningThe narrowing of space between two letters so that they become closer and take up less space on the page.
Key PlateThe printing plate that is used as a guide for the other plates in the color printing process; it usually has the most detail.
KeyingThe use of symbols, usually letters, to code copy that will appear on a dummy.
KeylineLines that are drawn on artwork that indicate the exact placement, shape and size of elements including halftones, illustrations etc.
Kiss ImpressionA delicate printed impression, just heavy enough to be seen.
KraftA coarse unbleached paper used for printing and industrial products.
LacquerA clear gloss coating applied to printed material for strength, appearance and protection.
Laid FinishA parallel lined paper that has a handmade look.
Laser EngravingA paper cutting technique whereby laser technology is utilized to cut away certain unmasked areas of the paper. The cutting is a result of the exposure of the paper to the laser ray, which actually evaporates the paper.
Lay EdgeEdge of a sheet of paper being fed into a printing press.
LayoutA rendition that shows the placement of all the elements, roughs, thumbnails etc., of the final printed piece before it goes to print.
LeadersThe dots or dashes used in type to guide the eye from one set of type to the next.
LeadingSpace between lines of type; the distance in points between one baseline and the next.
LeafOne of a number of folds (each containing two pages) which comprises a book or manuscript.
Leaf StampingA metal die, either (flat, or embossed), created from the image or copy, which is then heated to a specific temperature which allows the transfer of a film of pigmented polyester to the paper.
Ledger PaperA stiff heavy business paper generally used for keeping records.
LengthThe optimum length of a filament of ink.
LetterpressPrinting that utilizes inked raised surfaces to create the image.
LetterspacingThe addition of space between typeset letters.
Line CopyAny copy that can be reproduced without the use of halftone screens.
LinenA paper that emulates the look and texture of linen cloth.
Lithocoated PaperA paper that is coated with a special water-resistant material which is able to withstand the lithographic process.
LithographyThe process of printing that utilizes flat inked surfaces to create the printed images.
LogotypeA personalized type or design symbol for a company or product.
M weightThe actual weight of 1000 sheets of any given size of paper.
Machine CoatedPaper that has had a coating applied to either one or two of its sides during the papermaking process.
Machine DirectionAn alternate term for grain direction.
Machine FinishA paper finish that results from the interaction of the paper with the Fourdrinier process as opposed to post machine embossing. Reference, Fourdrinier
Magnetic BlackBlack pigments containing black iron oxides, used for magnetic ink character recognition.
Make RreadyProcess of adjusting final plate on the press to fine tune or modify plate surface.
MarginImprinted space around edge of page.
Mark-upTo write up instructions, as on a dummy.
Mask (1)The blocking out of a portion of the printing plate during the exposure process.
Mask (2)A photo negative or positive used in the color separation process to color correct. Reference, PRINTING, mask.
Match PrintPhotographic proof made from all color flats and form composite proof showing color quality as well as accuracy, layout, and imposition before plates are made.
Matte FinishA coated paper finish that goes through minimal calendaring. Reference, calendaring.
MeasureThe width of type as measured in picas. Reference, picas.
MechanicalA term used to describe finished artwork that is camera ready for reproduction, including all type, photos, illustrations etc.
Metropolitan Service AreaA group of ZIP codes usually in close proximity defining a large metropolitan area (e.g. New York City or Los Angeles).
Midtone DotCommonly taken as the area between highlight and shadow area of a subject’s face in halftone image.
MoireAn undesirable halftone pattern produced by the incorrect angles of overprinting halftone screens.
MolletonA cotton fabric used on the dampening rollers of a printing press.
Molybdate OrangeAn ink pigment made from precipitating lead molybdate, lead sulfate and lead chromate.
MottleA term used to describe spotty or uneven ink absorption.
MullCoarse muslin glue placed on the back of book or pads for strengthening.
Mullen TestingA specific test of tensile paper strength; an important factor if web presses are used for printing.
NaturalA term to describe papers that have a color similar to that of wood; also called cream, off-white or ivory.
NegativeFilm that contains the same images as the original print, except that all colors and shades are reversed. Reference, positive.
NewsprintA light, low cost groundwood paper made especially for newspapers. Reference, groundwood.
Nominal WeightWhen the basis weight of paper differs from the actual weight, the term nominal weight is used.
OA Of RegisterWhen two sheet passes on a press are misaligned.
OBCOutside back cover.
OFCOutside front cover.
OblongA term used to describe printed books, catalogs etc., that are bound on their shorter side; also referred to as album bound.
Off-shore PaperAny papers made outside the US and Canada.
OffsetThe most commonly used printing method, whereby the printed material does not receive the ink directly from the printing plate but from an intermediary cylinder called a blanket which receives the ink from the plate and transfers it to the paper.
Offset GravureA complex offset process involving multiple transfers between the gravure plate, the plate cylinder and a solid rubber plate.
Offset LithographyIndirect printing method in which the inked image on the press-plate is first printed onto a rubber blanket, then in turn offsets the inked impression on to the sheet of paper.
Offset PaperA term for uncoated book paper.
OnionskinA light bond paper used for typing and used with carbon paper because of its thinness.
OpacityQuality of papers that defines its opaqueness or ability to prevent two-sided printing from showing through.
OpaqueA quality of paper that allows relatively little light to pass through.
Opaque InkInk that completely covers any ink under itself.
OrthochromaticAny light sensitive surfaces that are not sensitive to red.
Over RunSurplus of copies printed.
Overhang CoverA cover of a book that extends over the trimmed signatures it contains.
OverlayA transparent sheet placed over artwork, in register with the work it covers; this is used to call out other color components of the work, instructions or corrections.
Overlay ProofA process of proof making whereby the color separations are individually exposed to light sensitive film. This film is then set in registration with a piece of white paper in the background.
OverprintingAny printing that is done on an area that has already been printed.
OversetType that is set in excess of the allotted space.
PageOne side of a leaf.
Page MakeupThe assemblage of all the necessary elements required to complete a page.
Page ProofsProofs made up from pages.
PanchromaticFilms or other photographic materials that are sensitive to all colors.
PaperboardAny paper with a thickness (caliper) of 12 points (.3mm) or more.
PapeterieA high-grade soft paper used for personal stationery because it accepts handwriting well.
ParchmentA hard finished paper that emulates animal skin; used for documents, such as awards, that require writing by hand.
Parent SheetA sheet that is larger than the cut stock of the same paper.
Paste DrierAny of a variety of compounds used in enhancing the drying properties of printing inks.
Paste InkAn ink having a high level of viscosity.
Paste-upPreparation of positive materials into a layout for photographing to film negatives.
Perf MarksMarkings usually dotted lines at edges showing where perforations should occur.
PerfectA term used to describe the binding process where the signatures of a book are held together by a flexible adhesive.
Perfect BindingBinding process where backs of sections are cut off, roughened and glued together, and rung in a cover.
PerfectingPrinting both sides of the paper (or other material) on the same pass through the printing machine.
Perfecting PressA printing press that prints on both sides of the page in a single pass.
PerforatingPunching small holes or slits in a sheet of paper or cardboard to facilitate tearing along a desired line.
PhloxineA blue red pigment used mostly in news inks; not a good ink for lithographers as it bleeds in alcohol and water.
PhotoengravingMaking printing plates by exposure of line and halftone negatives on sensitized metal, converting the image into an acid resist, and etching the print to the relief required for letterpress printing.
PhotomechanicalThe platemaking process where plates are coated with photosensitive coatings and exposed to photo negatives or positives.
PhotostatA photographic print creating an image using photography and electrostatic processes; also called a stat.
PhthalocyanineThe main pigment in the manufacture of cyan ink.
PicaStandard of measurement, 1/6 inch. 1 pica = 12 points 72 points = 1 inch
Picking (1)When the tack of ink is stronger than the surface strength of the paper, some lifting of the paper surface occurs; this is referred to as picking.
Picking (2)An occurrence in printing whereby the tack of ink pulls fibers or coating off the paper surface, leaving spots on the printed surface.
PilingA build up of pigment or paper coatings onto the plate, blankets or rollers.
Pin RegisterUsing metal pins fitted into preset holes of copy sheets, films, plates and presses that will assure the proper registration.
PinholingFailure of printed ink to form a completely continuous film, visible in the form of small holes in the printed areas.
Plastic CombA method of binding books whereby holes are drilled on the side closest the spine, and a plastic grasping device is inserted to hold the pages together.
PlasticizerAn ink additive that adds flexibility, softness and adhesion.
PlateReproduction of type or cuts in metal, plastic, rubber, or other material, to form a plate bearing a relief, planographic or intaglio printing surface.
Plate CylinderThe cylinder on a printing press on which the plate is mounted.
Plate FinishAny bond, cover or bristol stock with an extremely smooth finish achieved by calendaring.
PlatemakingMaking a printing plate from a film or flat including preparation of the plate surface, sensitizing, exposing through the flat, developing or processing, and finishing.
PointA measurement unit equal to 1/72 of an inch. 12 points to a pica, 72 points to an inch.
PositiveFilm that contains an image with the same tonal values as the original; opposite of a negative.
PpiPixels per inch.
PremiumAny paper that is considered better than #1 by its manufacturer.
Presensitized PlateA plate that has been treated with light sensitive coatings by the manufacturer.
Press-ProofActual press sheet to show image, tone values and colors as well as imposition of frame or press-plate.
Primary ColorsIn printing the four primary colors are cyan (blue), magenta (red), yellow and black.
PrintabilityThe quality of papers to show reproduced printed images.
Printers PairsTwo consecutive pages as they appear on a flat or signature.
Process InksPrinting inks, usually in sets of four colors. The most frequent combination is yellow, magenta, cyan, and black, which are printed, one over another in that order, to obtain a colored print with the desired hues, whites, blacks, and grays.
Process LensA high quality specialty lens made for line art, halftone and color photography.
Process PrintingPrinting from two or more half tones to produce intermediate colors and shades.
Progressive ProofsAny proofs made from the separate plates of a multi-plate-printing project.
ProofImpression from composed type or blocks, taken for checking and correction, from a lithographic plate to check accuracy of layout, type matter, tone and color reproduction.
Pull For PositionGuide sheet for the positioning of type, blocks, etc.
Rag paperPapers with a complete or partial content of cotton fibers.
Ragged LeftThe term given to right-justified type that is uneven on the left.
Ragged RightThe term given to left-justified type that is uneven on the right.
Railroad BoardA thick, coated paper used for signs; usually waterproof.
Readers PairsTwo consecutive pages as they appear in printed piece.
Ream500 sheets of paper.
RectoThe odd numbered pages (right hand side) of books.
Red Lake “C”A common pigment for paste and liquid red inks.
ReducerAny substance that softens and reduces the tack of ink.
ReelThe master roll of paper as it comes off the papermaking machine. It is in its original width and is then cut into smaller rolls.
RegisterThe arrangement of two or more images in exact alignment with each other.
Register MarksAny crossmarks or other symbols used on layout to assure proper registration.
Right Angle FoldA term that denotes folds that are 90 degrees to each other.
Roll To RollA web press printing process where the roll of paper is printed and stored on a roll to be shipped.
Rub ProofThat stage of printed ink where the maximum dryness is achieved, and the ink will not smudge.
RubineA pigment somewhat redder than true magenta.
Run-AroundA term given to copy that accommodates the lines of a picture or other image or copy.
RunabilityA term used to describe how well a paper runs on a printing press.
Running HeadA title at the top of a page that appears on all pages of a book or chapter of a book.
Saddle StitchingStitching where the wire staples pass through the spine from the outside and are clinched in the center. Only used with folded sections, either single sections or two or more sections inset to form a single section.
Safety PaperA paper that shows sign of erasure so that it cannot be altered or tampered with easily.
Satin FinishA smooth delicately embossed finished paper with sheen.
ScalingThe enlargement or reduction of an image or copy to fit a specific area.
ScoreImpressions or cuts in flat material to facilitate bending or tearing.
Screen AnglesThe placement of halftone screens to avoid unwanted moire patterns. Frequently used angles are black 45deg, magenta 75deg, yellow 90deg, and cyan 105deg.
Screen RulingA measurement equaling the number of lines or dots per inch on a halftone screen.
Screened PrintA photo print made by using a halftone negative; also called a velox.
ScumUnwanted ink marks in the non-image area.
Self CoverA cover made out of the same paper stock as the internal sheets.
Shadow DotThe lowest density of a halftone image.
SharpenTo decrease the dot size of the halftone which in turn decreases the color strength.
SheetwiseThe printing of two different images on two different sides of a sheet of paper by turning the page over after the first side is printed and using the same gripper and side guides.
Short InkInk that is smooth and creamy but does not flow freely.
Show ThroughA problem that occurs when the printing on one side of a sheet is seen from the other side.
Side GuideThe guides on the sides of the sheet fed press that position the sheet sideways as the paper is led towards the front guides.
Side StitchingStitching where the wire staples pass through the pile of sections or leaves gathered upon each other and are clinched on the underside.
Signature (Section)Printed sheet (or its flat) that consists of a number of pages of a book, placed so that they will fold and bind together as a section of a book. The printed sheet after folding.
Silhouette halftoneA halftone with the background screen removed.
SilverprintReference, brownline proof.
SlittingA term to describe the process of cutting of printed sheets by the cutting wheels of a printing press.
SmoothnessThat quality of paper defined by its levelness which allows for pressure consistency in printing, assuring uniformity of print.
Soft DotAn excessively large halo around a dot in a photograph that causes a fringe that diminishes the dot intensity.
SpineBack edge of a book.
Spiral BindA binding whereby a wire or plastic is spiraled through holes punched along the binding side.
Spot ColorSmall area printed in a second color.
SpreadA film image that is larger than the original image to accommodate ink trapping. Reference, trapping
StabbingTo bind a series of pages with wire staples such that staples enter from the front and back simultaneously, neither side being long enough to exit the opposite side.
StabilityThe quality of paper to maintain its original size when it undergoes pressure and moisture changes.
Stagger CuttingA process of cutting many sheets from the same parent sheet in which the smaller sheets have different grain directions; also called dutch or bastard cutting.
Star TargetThe Graphic Arts Technical Foundation, GATF has established various quality control images; the star target appears along with the color bar and helps the pressman detect any irregularity in the ink spread. Reference, Color Bars
Static NeutralizerA device on a printing press that minimizes the amount of static build up on paper as it passes through the press.
Step And RepeatA process of generating multiple exposures by taking an image and stepping it according to a predetermined layout.
StetA proofreader’s symbol that is usually written in the copy margin, that indicates that the copy, which was marked for correction, should be left as it was.
StockA term for unprinted paper or other material to be printed.
Strip-InTo add an element, such as copy that is shot separately, and then stripped into place on a goldenrod flat.
StrippingOriginally, the removal of the photographic emulsion with its image from individual negatives and combining them in position on a glass plate. Now the use of stripfilm materials, and the cutting, attachment, and other operations for assembling. The positioning of positives and negatives on the flat before proceeding to platemaking.
Stumping Or BlockingImpressing book covers, etc., by means of hot die, brass types or blocks.
Super CalendaringA machine procedure that produces a high finished paper surface that is extremely smooth and exceptional for printing.
Synthetic PapersAny petroleum based waterproof papers with a high tensile strength.
TackThe adhesive quality of inks.
TagA dense, strong paper stock.
Tensile StrengthA paper’s ability to withstand pressure.
TextA high quality printing paper.
ThermographyA printing process whereby slow drying ink is applied to paper and while the ink is still wet, it is lightly dusted with a resinous powder. The paper then passes through a heat chamber where the powder melts and fuses with the ink to produce a raised surface.
Through DrierA slower drier that dries the ink throughout without forming a hard crust.
Ticket EnvelopeEnvelopes used mostly for theater tickets, with no other particular usage.
TintA halftone screen that contains all the same sized dots.
Titanium OxideA bright white pigment (opaque) used for printing on metal and flexible packaging.
Toluidine RedA red pigment with poor bleed resistance.
ToothThe rough surfaced finish of papers such as vellum or antique.
TransparentInks that do not block out the colored inks that they print over, but instead blend with them to create intermediate colors.
TrappingThe process of printing wet ink over printed ink which may be wet or dry.
Trim MarksMarks placed on the sheet to indicate where to cut the page.
Twin Wire MachineFourdrinier papermaking machines with two wires, instead of a wire and felt side. This assures higher quality when two sides are used for printing.
Two-sidednessThe difference in feel and appearance of either side of a sheet of paper due to the papermaking process having a felt and wire side.
UncalendaredPapers that are not smoothed by going through the calendaring process.
UpA term used to describe how many similar sheets can be produced on a larger sheet; two up, four up, etc.
UprightA term given to books bound on the longer dimension.
Vacuum FrameAlso called a contact frame; used in the platemaking process to hold materials in tight contact during exposure.
VarnishA clear shiny ink used to add gloss to printed pieces. The primary component of the ink vehicle. Reference, vehicle.
VehicleA combination of varnish, waxes, dryers etc., that contain the pigment of inks and control the flow, the drying and the adhesion of the pigments to the printed surface.
VellumA finish of paper that is rough, bulky and has a degree of tooth.
Velour PaperA term given to papers that are coated with an adhesive and then flock dusted.
VeloxA photographic print which is made from a negative.
VersoA term given to the left-hand or even-numbered pages of a book.
VignetteFade to white or small decorative design or illustration. A photo or illustration etc., in which the tones fade gradually away until they blend with the surface they are printed on.
W&BAn abbreviation for work and back. Reference, sheetwise.
W&TAn abbreviation for work and turn.
Walk-offA term given to the occurrence of plate deterioration of the image area during the printing process; usually occurs on long runs.
WashupThe procedure of cleaning a particular ink from all of the printing elements (rollers, plate, ink fountain etc.) of a press.
WatermarkA translucent logo that is embossed during the papermaking process while the paper slurry is on the dandy roll. Reference, dandy roll
WebThe roll of paper that is used in web or rotary printing.
Web BreakA tear in a web roll during the printing process.
Web PressCylinder printing machine in which the paper is fed from a continuous reel, as opposed to sheet fed.
Web TensionThe term given to the tension or pull exerted by the web press on the web roll.
Wedding PaperA soft paper that is thick and holds up well under embossing.
Wet TrappingThe ability of an ink film to accept subsequent ink films.
WidowA single word or two left at the end of a paragraph, or a part of a sentence ending a paragraph, which loops over to the next page and stands alone. Also, the last sentence of a paragraph which contains only one or two short words.
Wipe On PlateA plate on which is wiped a light sensitive coating by a coating device; usually the first step in this type of platemaking.
Wire SideThat side of the paper which lies on the wire screen side of the papermaking machine.
Wire Stitching Or StaplingTo fasten together sheets, signatures, or sections with wire staples. 3 methods… saddle stitching, side stitching, and stabbing.
WoveA smooth paper made on finely textured wire that gives the paper a gentle patterned finish.
WrinklesThe unevenly dried surface of printed inks.
Writing PaperAnother name for bond paper.
Xerographic PaperPapers made to reproduce well in copy machines and laser printers.
Yield ValueThe actual amount of force needed to start an ink flowing.